Canada celebrates its 150 years and reveals the uniqueness of a candidate country to an unprecedented political and cultural leadership.
On July 1, 1867, the Dominion of Canada was officially born, now known as the Canadian Confederation. The celebrated Canada Day this year, celebrated the 150th anniversary of the constitution of a single federal power; 150 years since the unification of the so-called "provinces" that make up the vast Canadian territory and which, while maintaining a large administrative autonomy, have created a strong national identity.
The celebrations, especially felt at this time, were held in the presence of the highest institutional offices, including Prince Charles of the United Kingdom and his wife Camilla, and 25,000 citizens gathered in front of Parliament for the festivities that have planned a ceremony that provided a citizenship assignment to a group of new Canadians, fireworks and performances by famous artists such as Bono Vox and The Edge of U2 and the performances of the Canadian circus performers of the Cirque du Soleil. The history of Canada, said Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, "is made by millions of ordinary people who do extraordinary things" and they have demonstrated this also on this occasion. The celebrations and love demonstrations for the nation have been extended across Canada: in Winnipeg, the capital of the province of Manitoba, in the south of the country, four thousand people dressed in red and formed at the center of an intersection, the largest living leaf maple, the symbol of Canada. In Toronto, at the center of the Rogers Center baseball field, where the match between the Boston Red Sox and the Toronto Blue Jays would have taken place, a giant flag of Canada was exhibited.
The 150 years of Canada
With the affirmation of British military supremacy on the French army (1760-1764), a complex coexistence between Catholic elements of French origin and Anglo-Saxon Protestants was initiated, guaranteed right from the Québec Act (1774), which recognized, to the inhabitants of the French-speaking colony, the freedom to profess the Catholic religion and leave the French civil laws in force; Subsequently, the Canada Act (1791) subdivided the territory into Lower Canada (Québec), with a French majority, and Upper Canada (Ontario), with mostly English populations; Finally, with the Reunion Act (1840), the two provinces unified on the executive and legislative level.
From here, in 1864, a number of important developments took place in the North American scenario; changes that aimed to a certain degree of independence and which resulted in the elaboration of a Canadian federation project, crystallized in 1867 through the British North America Act, recognizing the federal structure of the state arising from the unification of the four provinces of the ' Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. It entered into force on 1 July 1867, and it ruled that the federal government and the Parliament would have taken over general competences, while at the various provinces would be recognized broad autonomy.
Thus it formed the Dominion of Canada, in which the executive power was entrusted to the Queen, represented by the Governor General and the legislative power entrusted to Parliament, consisting of the Senate and the House of Commons. The territories that now belong to the Canadian Confederation were acquired in subsequent years, with the consequent expulsion of Indians and Meticci, now better known as First Nations and Métis Nation, recognized as a major part of the Canadian population. Canada's emancipation process ended in 1931 through the Westminster formalization of the Statute, which provided for recognition of Canada's full sovereignty over its territories that, while remaining part of the Commonwealth's framework, gained wide autonomy and concrete from the English Crown.
The world discovers Canada
Canada today bases its success on courage and foresight in choices that have improved the quality of life, boosting the appeal of a country that is still too unknown but whose leadership, in an international scenario that is undergoing change, has been developed.
The Canadian tradition, based on respect for diversity and integration, characterized by multiethnic roots, the young age of the population and a multiracial socio-political system that makes its diversity its success, is developing with the popularity of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau , also rising in Europe, where it is considered among the youngest and most innovative prime ministers in the world. In this regard, Trudeau wanted to focus on his video message at the Canada Day on the core values of Canadian tradition: integration, diversity as wealth, the most dear principles (equality, freedom and bilingualism) gathered in Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the extraordinary nature of being a Canadian citizen. He also recalled that for some Canadian citizens, on July 1, it is not a holiday day, but to remember the beginning of a long period of oppression and racism that has marked the history of Canada. Indigenous peoples, victims of abuse and inequalities, play an important role today in the Canadian social and political context, but as the premier said, "Canadians must recognize what happened and apologize for the mistakes of the past." Trudeau also confronted the native question, meeting a group of young people who, on protest on Canada Day celebrations, on June 30, had erected a teepee tent in front of Parliament.